· The eighth edition of the MLA Handbook does not require that you include a date of access—the date on which you consulted a work—when you cite an online work from a · 1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website, publication date and/or access date if available, URL. Shortened note (after it has (CMOS ) Include a time stamp after the date for online articles if available and as appropriate. Include information about the edition or section as appropriate. Note that page When an online source does not list a publication date, replace it with an access date in your Chicago footnotes and your bibliography: Example: Chicago bibliography entry with access ... read more
films , videos , podcasts, songs , this is a timestamp, e. Webpages are usually short enough that no specific locator is needed. However, for a particularly long web page, you can use a subheading from the page, in quotation marks, e.
Note that page numbers should be left out of newspaper citations , even when they are available. This is because page numbers can vary between different editions of a newspaper. Place the figure before or after the first paragraph where it is mentioned. Refer to figures by their numbers in the text e. Below the figure, place a caption providing the figure number followed by a period e. The caption is single-spaced and left-aligned, and followed by a blank line before the continuation of the main text.
In a Chicago style footnote , list up to three authors. In the bibliography , list up to 10 authors. The same rules apply in Chicago author-date style. In a Chicago footnote citation , when the author of a source is unknown as is often the case with websites , start the citation with the title in a full note. In short notes and bibliography entries, list the organization that published it as the author. In Chicago author-date style , treat the organization as author in your in-text citations and reference list.
A good standard choice is 12 pt Times New Roman. Both present the exact same information; the only difference is the placement of the year in source citations:. There are also other types of bibliography that work as stand-alone texts, such as a Chicago annotated bibliography. Turabian style is a version of Chicago style designed specifically for students and researchers. It follows most Chicago conventions, but also adds extra guidelines for formatting research papers , theses and dissertations.
More information can be found in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian, now in its ninth edition.
Footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page. Endnotes appear in a list at the end of the text, just before the reference list or bibliography. In Chicago notes and bibliography style , you can use either footnotes or endnotes, and citations follow the same format in either case. In APA and MLA style , footnotes or endnotes are not used for citations, but they can be used to provide additional information. In Chicago author-date style , your text must include a reference list.
It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited. In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. In Chicago notes and bibliography style , the usual standard is to use a full note for the first citation of each source, and short notes for any subsequent citations of the same source. This makes your citations more concise.
FAQ: How do I cite a website in Chicago style? Toggle menu visibility. Ask Another Question:. Answered By: Jennifer Harris. Last Updated: Aug 19, Views: Shortened note after it has been used once : 4. Web Page, Author 1. Web Page, Group Author 3.
Web Page, No Author 8. More Information Citation Quick Guide Chicago Manual of Style Chicago Style Guide Shapiro Library Further Help This information is intended to be a guideline, not expert advice. Online Students To access help with citations and more, visit the Academic Support via modules in Brightspace: Academic Support Overview: Getting Help with your Schoolwork This link opens in a new window References University of Chicago. Toggle action bar FAQ Actions.
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Published on October 21, by Jack Caulfield. Revised on July 22, The Chicago Manual of Style provides guidelines for two styles of source citation: notes and bibliography and author-date. Author-date style is the preferred option in the sciences and social sciences.
Each citation must correspond to an entry in the reference list at the end of your paper, where you give full details of the source. Table of contents Using author-date in-text citations Creating a reference list Format of reference list entries Variations on the format of Chicago author-date citations Frequently asked questions about Chicago author-date style.
In Chicago author-date style, you cite sources in parentheses in the text. If you refer to a specific part of the text particularly when quoting or paraphrasing , you should also add a page number or page range to direct the reader to the relevant passage.
The page number appears after a comma:. A citation usually appears at the end of the relevant clause, sentence or quotation, before any concluding punctuation.
If multiple citations are needed at the same point, they should appear in the same set of parentheses separated by a semicolon :. Previous researchers have argued that the evidence is insufficient to confirm a correlation Smith ; Johnson , but new evidence suggests this consensus may be mistaken McDonald If quoting, add a page number directly after the quote:.
The reference list appears at the end of your paper, and provides more detailed information about the sources you cited. It is single-spaced, unlike the main text , but a blank line is left between entries.
Garcia Márquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape. Examples for various source types are given below. Book citations include the title in italics, the place of publication and the publisher. If the book gives an edition on the title page, include this. Add the names of any editors and translators, and add a URL or e-book format if you consulted a digital version.
To cite a chapter from an edited collection, include the chapter title in quotation marks, the page range where the chapter appears, and the editor s of the book. Journal article entries include the volume and issue number, as well as a more specific publication date and a page range showing where the article appears in the journal.
If accessed online, add a digital object identifier DOI or a URL. For web pages and online articles, put the page or article title in quotation marks, followed by the name of the website.
The format of in-text citations and reference list entries can vary to accommodate circumstances like multiple authors, multiple publications by the same author in one year, and missing information. When there are multiple authors, list their names in the same order as they appear in the source. When a source has two or three authors, include the names of all the authors in your in-text citation. In the reference list, up to ten authors are listed.
The other names are not inverted:. Gmuca, Natalia V. Pearson, Jennifer M. Burns, and Heather E. In cases like this, list the sources in alphabetical order by title in your reference list, and add a letter after the year of each one: a, b, c….
List the same letters after the in-text citations — which may appear in the text in a different order:. If you need to cite a source with no author, there are a couple of scenarios. University of Glasgow. The Example Book: A Book of Examples. New York: Norton. For an in-text citation, use the title. If the title is longer than four words, use a shortened version of it starting with the first word excluding articles :. Page numbers should be included in your Chicago in-text citations when:.
This makes your citations more concise. Both present the exact same information; the only difference is the placement of the year in source citations:. There are also other types of bibliography that work as stand-alone texts, such as a Chicago annotated bibliography. In Chicago author-date style , your text must include a reference list. It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited.
In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. I was wondering, for chicago author-date in-text citation, if I cite the source within one paragraph multiple times, do I still have to always write the whole citation or is it possible to use something like ibid. So instead of always writing Bilali and Vollhardt , just ibid, As far as I can tell, Chicago doesn't mention any way of shortening repeated author-date citations, and they don't mention using ibid.
in this context. So I would suggest sticking with the full citation, even though it's a bit repetitive. I'm wondering how to cite several different entries from the same website with no date.
Does the a-b-c rule apply then? If so, in-text citations would follow this pattern: Eurostat n. Eurostat n. Thank you! Yes, that's indeed the correct format if you have multiple sources from the same author with no date. They appear to be the exact same to me but I'm overlooking something I'd like to know!
They're certainly similar styles in that they're both 'author-date' approaches to citation. They differ on some of the specifics of how in-text citations and reference list entries are formatted. For instance, where to place commas, whether to use "p. So they're not the same style, but they certainly have the same basic approach. Hello, I would like to reflect the thoughts of an author in my bachelor thesis. I often mention the name of the author in my text.
So I ask myself whether I have to put the year and page number after the author's name every time? Or is it enough if I do that at the end of the content section? Hope that helps! I would like to know what the format is for the Chicago-author-date style in word for the reference list?
I know that the line spacing is single, but I am unsure what the "before" and "after" option should be should both the number option for "before" and "after" be 0 pt? Hi, I would like to know how I should organize multiple works of the same author in one set of brackets with in-text citation. If for example I refer to Jackson and Jackson ? Should it be: Jackson and or Jackson ; Jackson ? When you cite two works by the same author in the same place, you can just place a semicolon between the two years; you don't need to repeat the author's name: Jackson ; I would like to know how I should organize multiple sources in one set of brackets with in-text citation.
If for example I refer to Bol , Cricket , and Dumbo , should I organize them alphabetically, chronologically, or by relevance?
In this case, you're free to choose which order to place them in. Chicago suggests alphabetical, chronological, or ordering by importance are all valid approaches; use whichever approach seems most appropriate to you. I was wondering what should I do when citing in author-date Chicago style and writing an additional footnote to further explain a concept presented in the text , in which I want to cite a book, a website or anything else.
To cite a source in author-date style within a footnote, you can just follow the usual style for author-date citations in the main text. For example:. Do you just put the page of the footnote, or do you do something like, Latour , 12, n. Thanks for your help!
The format Chicago recommends for this is indeed to use "n" but without any spaces or punctuation. So to cite note 35 on page 12, you'd write " Latour , 12n35 ". However, they also say that if there's only one note on the page, you can just write "n" without specifying the note number, i.
If there is no individual author listed, but the source was created by a specific organization, cite the organization name as the author. If not, use a shortened version of the title instead. If there is no publication date, replace in with "n.
Have a language expert improve your writing. Proofreading Services. Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes. Plagiarism Checker. Generate accurate citations for free. Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Chicago Style Chicago Author-Date Style A Complete Guide to Citing Sources.
· 1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website, publication date and/or access date if available, URL. Shortened note (after it has (CMOS ) Include a time stamp after the date for online articles if available and as appropriate. Include information about the edition or section as appropriate. Note that page When an online source does not list a publication date, replace it with an access date in your Chicago footnotes and your bibliography: Example: Chicago bibliography entry with access · The eighth edition of the MLA Handbook does not require that you include a date of access—the date on which you consulted a work—when you cite an online work from a ... read more
Prevent plagiarism, run a free check. When an online source does not list a publication date, replace it with an access date in your Chicago footnotes and your bibliography : Example: Chicago bibliography entry with access date Scribbr. Type Example Full note 1. Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes. Web Page, Group Author 3. Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text only; they are rarely included in a reference list. Both present the exact same information; the only difference is the placement of the year in source citations:.Chicago style does not recommend including access dates in the citation, unless no date of publication or last revision for the source may be located. I tried to copy and paste my own code but it didn't show up. Accessibility Information. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Last modified April 17, The following examples illustrate the author-date system.